Our Focus is ONLY on the HOLY LAND (PALESTINE)
Postal Offices (Civilian and Military)





♦ Turkish [Ottoman–Civilian and Military]

♦ Foreign Military [Allies and Other Central  Powers]

♦ Jewish Connection

[Jewish Legion, Turkish Jews and Jewish POWs]


Post Offices (Civilian and Military)


Turkish (Ottoman Empire) military action in World War I started on October 29, 1914 with their attack on Russia’s Black Sea coast; and ended on October 30, 1918 with the signing of the Armistice of Mudros.

The following POSTAL changes occurred.

  • The Turkish (Ottoman Empire) Post Offices.
    • The Turkish Post Offices (Civilian) continued to operate during the war until September, 1918.
    • Military FPO (Field Post Offices) were begun for the military.
  • All Foreign Post Offices (Austrian, French, German, Italian and Russian), operated UNTIL September 30, 1914; and, were CLOSED on October 1, 1914.
  • As World War I progressed, Military Mail was used by the  combatants.
    • Allies Powers: [BRITISH–British, Australian/New Zealand, Indian; FRENCH (Detachment); ITALIAN (Detachment)].
    • Central Powers (Turkish is listed SEPARATELY, see above): [GERMAN–German, Austrian/Hungarian].


  • Jewish Connection is presented separately as:
    • Jewish Legion (Part of Allies Powers–British).
    • Turkish Jews (Part of Ottoman Military Post Offices).
    • Jewish POWs.

World War I Images

♦ Allies Power

(Below are items from SOME of the Military Posts)

♦ Other Central Powers

(Below are items from SOME of the Military Posts)


Jewish Connection

(Below are items from SOME of the Military Posts)


BELOW from Alexander Collection (see link below).

. . . . In the history of Eretz- Israel, World War I will be remembered as a dark period of starvation, expulsion and the use of the population as pawns in a confrontation between powerful nation-states.

. . . The Ottoman Empire officially joined the war on the side of the Germans and the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the end of October 1914. On August 2, the Turks signed a secret agreement with the Germans for reciprocal military support against the Russians. The same day, a military call-up was announced for a general recruitment of soldiers*, beginning in Turkey and then spreading throughout the entire Empire.

On October 1, the privileges of foreign citizens living in Eretz Israel were revoked* – an annulment of previous capitulation agreements. As a result, all foreign consulates and postal agencies in the country, including the offices of Turkey’s allies, Austria and Germany, were closed*.

The old Jewish settlement saw the cancellation of these agreements as a scheme to sever their bond with Eretz-Israel, since their life there depended upon foreign citizenship granted by the European powers. The choice facing foreign citizens was to become Ottomans or leave the country*.

At the beginning of the war, some groups of settlers supported the Turkish war effort*, going so far as to praise the annulment of the capitulation agreement; they believed that, as Jews who agreed to adopt Ottoman citizenship, they would receive better treatment from the governing authorities*.

At the close of 1914, the curtain rose on the war in Palestine*, engaging the region in many parallel events in which 690,000 inhabitants were involved, including 85,000 Jews*.

*(All red font is Editor’s choice)


SIP Philatelic Sources
(From the Members Library

♦ Sacher, Michael M.    Army and Field Post Offices of Egypt and the EEF, 1914–1920.    1970.

♦ Emery, Bob.    Australian Imperial Forces Postal History 1914-1918.    1984.

♦ Firebace, John.    British Empire Campaigns and Occupations in the Near East, 1914-1924.